You have reached Jen Llewellyn for the fourth edition of the 2013 OMAF and MRA Nursery and Landscape Report, updated on Friday, May 10th.
Environment Canada is calling for cooler, cloudy/rainy weather this weekend, with temperature ranging from 10-14oC in many areas. There is a risk of frost on Saturday and Sunday nights in most areas of southern Ontario but check your local forecast for overnight lows if you have nursery stock that is flowering or leafing out.
Frost Protection. The surest way to protect tender new foliage and flowers is to cover them. Some growers use light weight thermal blankets and some use leftover poly. The coldest temperatures are usually experienced between the hours of 2:00 and 5:00 am. If you are irrigating to reduce frost injury, start irrigating before temperatures dip down below 0oC. The act of freezing releases heat from the irrigation water molecules and warms the surface of the plant so tissue does not freeze. Unfortunately, ice formation may actually physically damage tender new shoots because it is so heavy. You’ll have to use your discretion about night time irrigation. Another option is to increase air flow around the plants. By blowing away the cold air that settles around the plants, you can reduce some of the low temperature injury. Some growers have tried using fans from their airblast sprayers with some success.
Start applying fertilizer in the field and landscape where soils are dry and warm to facilitate root growth and maximize the uptake of fertilizer nutrients (usually when leaves have emerged and expanded). A soil test will show deficiencies that can be corrected through supplemental fertilizing. It has been shown that applications of nitrogen to cold, wet soils results in loss of nitrogen to the environment.
Plant Phenology indicators this week,
A) North of 401: Magnolia soulangiana (Saucer magnolia, late bloom): Acer saccharum (sugar maple, late bloom), Amelanchier laevis (mid bloom), Cercis canadensis (early bloom)
B) Niagara: Magnolia soulangiana (Saucer magnolia, full bloom); Acer saccharum (sugar maple, mid bloom) Amelanchier laevis (mid bloom), Cercis canadensis (early bloom)
C) London area: if you would like to report plant phenology events, please contact me.
D) Leamington-Windsor: if you would like to report plant phenology events, please contact me.
If you are referring to the Monitoring tables in the 2009 edition of publication 383, Nursery and Landscape Plant Production and IPM, look at Table 4-4 on pg. 64.
PLEASE NOTE: The Following Pesticide Recommendations are meant for Exception Uses (e.g. agriculture) under the Cosmetic Pesticide Ban unless the active ingredient is listed under Class 11 pesticides in Ontario Regulation 63/09, effective April 22, 2009.
The 2013 Crop Protection Guide for Nursery and Landscape Plants (previously 383, now publication 840) can now be found at: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub840/p840order.htm
This contains the crop pest recommendations for nursery and landscape plants that was previously found in publication 383. Publication 840 is a .pdf file, accessible online and on cd.
Nursery-Landscape Insect Pest ID: Dave Cheung’s Common Pests of Nursery-Landscape database to help ID your problem pests. Check out http://www.dkbdigitaldesigns.com/clm
Once ash trees have leafed out, injectable insecticides may be used to protect the trees from new infestations of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis). Trees must be actively transpiring in order to maximize insecticide uptake into the cambium. Registered injectable insecticide products include: AceCap 97, Confidor 200 SL and Tree-Azin. Check out the Management Strategy for Emerald Ash Borer and Bronze Birch Borer at: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/insects/eab-bbb-manage.htm. Emerald ash borer adults start to emerge when the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) are blooming.
The regulated areas for Emerald Ash Borer can be found at:
The regulated areas for EAB outlines restrictions on the movement of all ash species (Fraxinus sp.) materials and all species of firewood from these regulated areas of Ontario and Quebec.
As of April 5, 2013, the Asian Long Horned Beetle is considered to be eradicated from Canada (Ontario). It was detected in the southern part of the City of Vaughan and the north east part of the City of Toronto. The Asian Long-horned Beetle was last detected inside the regulated area in Toronto in December, 2007. The Asian Long-horned Beetle Infested Place Order is no longer being enforced. This means that tree materials, including nursery stock, trees, logs, lumber, wood, and wood and bark chips from tree species that are susceptible to the Asian Long-horned Beetle, may once again be freely moved out of, or through, this area.
Winter desiccation is evident on many evergreens this spring. They were already stressed going into the winter of 2012-2013. Drying winds and warm, sunny days in late winter caused foliage to lose water. Because the ground is (usually) frozen, roots can not replenish lost water from the foliage and the foliage dries out and becomes brown. Newly-transplanted evergreens are even more susceptible because of their reduced root systems and ability to store water. Quite often, the damage is on the afternoon-sun side of the plant. Take heart, as long as buds are not damaged, the emergence of new growth should hide most of the winter burn.
If you are bringing in SOD (Sudden Oak Death, Phytophthora ramorum) host nursery stock from high risk areas, you may want to monitor for SOD symptoms. Camellia, Rhododendron, Viburnum, Pieris, Kalmia and Syringa are considered to be high risk host genera, as they are most common genera found positive for SOD in retail and wholesale nurseries. Fungicides registered for SOD in nurseries include: Acrobat 50 WP, Chipco Aliette WG and Subdue Maxx.
For a complete list of SOD regulated hosts, check out: http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/plaveg/protect/dir/sodspe.shtml
Where nursery stock continues to be maintained in a polyhouse, caution should be taken when applying pest control sprays. Temperatures in the polyhouse can spike on clear sunny days, causing the chemical to injure foliage. Ventilation holes should be cut to keep high temperatures and high humidity at bay. High humidity has been linked to distortion and stunting of new growth on vines and shrubs and should be addressed where these symptoms have been observed.
Some Fungal and bacterial blights (e.g. Pseudomonas blight on Syringa) of woody stock can often be attributed to stressful conditions experienced under poly and also the extreme shifts in temperature once the poly is removed. Pseudomonas bacterial blight on deciduous shrubs looks very similar to low temperature injury, and often the two conditions go hand-in-hand. In container nurseries, where Pseudomonas blight on lilac (and other deciduous flowering shrubs) was a problem last season, you may want to consider an application of copper as buds start to swell. (Research also indicates that the copper becomes more effective if combined with Dithane.) The bacteria overwinter next to the buds and can infect leaf tissue once bud caps split open. Again, infection and spread of this bacterial disease can be reduced where temperatures and humidity levels are moderated (i.e. ventilation under poly) and new foliage is more gradually hardened off to outdoor conditions.
Low temperature injury is quite common on new growth of Euonymus in the spring, even if air temperatures don’t fall all the way down below 0oC. The new growth on broadleaf evergreens is especially sensitive to low temperature injury. Where broadleaf evergreens are putting out new growth in the field or in uncovered container beds, consider protecting new growth from low temperature injury (air temp 1-2oC and below). Methods of preventing low temperature injury can be found above. Low temperature injury damage on foliage appears first as water soaked tissue. Tissue then dries out and turns brown or brown-black and falsely resembles disease. The damaged tissue may be colonized by weak fungal and bacterial pathogens (Pseudomonas bacteria, Colletotrichum anthracnose), giving a misdiagnosis of the original cause of the problem.
In PRODUCTION NURSERIES where black vine weevil larvae are a problem in container crops (e.g. perennials, evergreens), wait until soils reach at least a consistent 10-12oC and treat with beneficial nematodes, Heterohabditis bacteriophora (H.b.). This should result in a significant reduction in populations within two weeks. Since Heterohabditis nematodes require moist, warm soil, we find that they do not work well in the landscape/field unless ample, supplemental irrigation can be provided for the 10 days following application. In container production, Met 52 can also be used prevenatively, at the time of potting, to help control all stages of black vine weevil. In the LANDSCAPE and GARDEN, check for overwintered LARVAE of black vine weevil on Rhododendron, Taxus, Thuja, Euonymus etc. in the garden and treat with nematodes when soil temperatures warm up.
Take a look at the roots of poor looking turf and field grown ornamentals and look for populations of European chafer, May/June Beetle larvae and other white grub species in the soil. Preventative applications of Intercept (imidacloprid) are registered for white grubs (nursery production) and the application period is in June and July (during the adult flight period). Beneficial nematode applications are not recommended this time of year and are much more effective when applied to early instar larvae, mid-August to early-September.
DECIDUOUS WOODY AND HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS:
Tar spot appears as large, circular spots on the leaves of Norway maple (as well as other Acer sp) in late summer and fall. The fungus overwinters on fallen, infected leaves and sporulates in the spring when the new foliage is emerging and susceptible to disease, usually after a rain event. This is usually around late bloom on Norway maple. Where tar spot is a problem, protect emerging leaves before rain events with fungicides (Banner, Compass) where warranted.
Where new growth is emerging on Malus sp., the overwintering fruiting structures of apple scab on last year’s fallen foliage may still be infecting spring growth, especially during warm, leaf wetness periods. Apple scab appears as a blotching along veins and also on fruit, it is often associated with early leaf drop. Where appropriate, protect new growth before rain events with fungicides throughout leaf emergence (until leaves harden off). The apple scab fungus grows best at temperatures between 16-24oC, a leaf wetness period is required for the spores to germinate and infect emerging leaves. Intervals between fungicide applications can be longer during dry weather. Some newer fungicides registered for apple scab include: Banner Maxx and Serenade Max (a biological).
Where Malus and Pyrus are blooming and beginning to leaf out, applications of bactericidal products (Copper, Kasumin (new), BlossomProtect (bio)) can help reduce the incidence of Fire blight infections during WARM, WET weather this spring. The weather this weekend is perfect for the spread and infection of Fireblight. Fireblight infection causes dead shoots on Malus and Pyrus, sometimes killing young nursery stock.
Monitor overwintering, galls of cedar-apple rust, cedar-quince rust and cedar-hawthorn rust and branch swellings of pear-trellis rust on Juniper. After a rain event, these juniper galls will begin producing slimy, orange projections during warm, wet/humid weather. These projections contain the spores that will infect the alternate Rosaceous hosts: Malus, Crataegus, Amelanchier, Pyrus etc. They have already sporulated in container production and will sporulate in the field once the wet weather returns. Keep Rosaceous and Juniper hosts separated from eachother where possible. Apply protectant fungicides (such as Nova) to Rosaceous hosts when the Juniper galls start to sporulate this spring. For photos of galls: http://www.uoguelph.ca/~thsiang/rust/rust.htm
Black knot is easy to see on Prunus sp. at this time. Monitor gardens and adjacent wild areas for Prunus shrubs and trees for large black growths on previous years twigs. If you have the time to prune, prune the cankers out, back quite close to the main stem BEFORE LEAVES EMERGE. Destroy all pruned twigs. Pruning too shallow retains the undetectable, developing canker on the tree and does nothing to limit the disease. Fungicides may give some suppressions when sprayed at green tip, pre-bloom and blossom time. Fungicides include Daconil and Maestro. Fungicides need to be applied ahead of precipitation events during bloom and shoot emergence In the nursery/orchard, Daconil has been shown to be the most effective fungicide. (Fruit-bearing mature Prunus: Daconil cannot be applied after shuck split or fruit will be injured). For more information: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/hort/news/hortmatt/2003/03hrt03a4.htm
Monitor ornamental Corylus sp. for signs of Filbert Blight. This is a fungal disease that causes rows of small, black, crescent-shaped cankers along dead stems. Remove cankered shoots, 20-30 cm behind visible cankers, when plants are dormant. Disinfect pruning shears between each cut. Do not prune once new growth starts emerging. Corylus avellena ‘Contorta’ is particularly susceptible. Spray fungicides to protect new growth, starting at bud swell to bud break. Registered fungicides for this disease include: Copper oxychloride 50, Copper Spray and Flint (Compass).
Adults of the imported willow leaf beetle (Plagioderaversicolora) are found on Salix (Willow) this time of year. The beetles were feeding on the leaves, chewing conspicuous holes and notches into them. They are easily recognizable by their shiny, metallic black to bluish-green color. Adults overwinter in cracks within the bark on the host tree and start feeding in the spring. They will soon be laying yellow eggs on the underside of leaves, which will hatch 2 weeks after that. The larvae will feed on the interveinal tissue on the underside of the leaves and damage can be significant. The adults can be found feeding in field production and in the landscape in the coming weeks. Low toxicity insecticides registered for this pest include Success 480 SC. Other insecticides include Malathion, Orthene and Sevin. Avoid Sevin application when Salix is in bloom.
The nymphs of many scale insects have overwintered on twigs and are visible at this time. Heavy infestations can be pruned out and destroyed where possible. Some species of scale insects to monitor for include: Magnolia scale (nymphs), Fletcher scale (nymphs), Euonymus scale (adults), golden oak scale (adults), fruit Lecanium scale (nymphs) and juniper scale (nymphs).
Mites and Wasps that cause spindle and bladder gall on maple trees are active and starting to lay their eggs where maple foliage is starting to emerge. A delayed dormant/summer spray of horticultural oil (e.g. Landscape Oil, PureGreen Spray Oil) that has “summer” rates and uses on the label may be able to help reduce the number of successful leaf galls this year. AVOID horticultural OIL applications on SUGAR MAPLE, as it is phytotoxic to their foliage. These gall pests do not harm the health of the tree, but can look unsightly.
Birches with a history of bronze birch borer infestation should be pruned by now. Symptoms appear as branch tip death, branch death and death of the leader and progresses quite quickly. Destroy pruned material to prevent emergence of beetles. Natural resistance to this pest can be enhanced through activities that improve plant health, such as light fertilizing (May, October), irrigating and removing any weeds and grasses that provide competition for the tree. Betula pendula is most susceptible to this pest and should be avoided in areas of known BBB infestation. Betula nigra and its selections have been shown to be quite tolerant to BBB attack. Check out the Management Strategy for Emerald Ash Borer and Bronze Birch Borer at: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/insects/eab-bbb-manage.htm
Birch leafminer adults (small, black sawflies) are emerging, mating and will be starting to lay eggs on expanding birch leaves. Systemic insecticides are registered to manage this pest in nursery production. Injectable insecticides (AceCap 97, TreeAzin) are registered for this pest in the landscape.
Where honeylocust podgall midge was a problem in the past, monitor trees for overwintered adult midges soon. These adults will be emerging as the buds start to swell. Adult midges will be laying eggs on buds in early spring (reddish eggs on buds and new leaves). Recent research in Oregon suggests that delayed dormant oil applications targeting the first couple of egg clutches can help reduce the incidence of pod gall midge. This involves applications of product early in the season, starting before foliar emergence.
Eastern tent caterpillars are hatching at budbreak and tiny, black fuzzy larvae will start feeding and making webby tents in branch crotches. Manually remove and destroy the egg masses of Eastern tent caterpillar where they are still dormant. The egg masses appear as swollen, shiny grey bands around small twigs of cherry, crabapples and hawthorns. They actually glisten in the sunlight. The larvae can cause severe defoliation in May, where populations are high. Young larvae hide in webby tents during the day, remove and destroy tents during daylight hours in the first week or two after their appearance and destroy. Where larvae are a little larger and start to feed during daylight hours, try an application of the biological insecticide B.t (Dipel, Foray) on the foliage during the evening hours. Larvae will turn black and die approximately 3-5 days after eating the B.t. residue on the foliage.
Gypsy moth egg masses are hatching! The egg masses appear as raised, buff coloured fuzz on tree trunks, fence posts, buildings and other sheltered locations. When larvae begin to emerge (when trilliums are in full bloom), some control can be achieved using Bacillus thuringienesis (Dipel, Foray) and spinosad (Success) insecticide in the first 2 weeks after egg hatch. Some keen homeowners can install a burlap skirt at the base of the tree to create a shady, protected area for larvae to hide during the day (this behaviour usually peaks near the end of May). Homeowners will need to inspect burlap skirts and underlying bark crevices daily (1-3 pm is best) and remove/destroy larvae. Sticky bands around trunks during the June/July flight period will help prevent females from laying eggs above sticky bands and will attract males to the sticky surface.
Viburnum leaf beetle egg masses are starting to hatch where leaves Viburnum leaves are emerging. Look for raised bumps on the undersides of 1 and 2-year-old twigs. The bumpy caps can be picked off to reveal the yellow eggs underneath. Monitor these eggs to help target the beginning of larval feeding The larvae are vulnerable to chemical control only during the first 7-10 days after hatch. Larvae feed on the interveinal tissue from the undersides of the leaves, keep that in mind if you are doing insecticidal applications (Success, Actara, horticultural oil).
Brown shoots on juniper may be a symptom of juniper tip blight (Kabatina blight). A small grey band or pinched grey canker can be found at the base of the infected shoot, this is where the spores come from. Where plants are still dormant, PRUNE OUT DEAD SHOOTS during DRY conditions (and remove shoots) to reduce disease spread. Disinfect pruning shears between each cut (e.g. rubbing alcohol, other sterilants) to reduce disease spread. Pruning is not suggested once new growth appears, as it will help spread this disease. Where cankers are found, copper and Dithane are registered to protect emerging new growth this spring and summer.
Gymnosporangium rusts are sporulating on Junipers. See above for more info.
Where new foliage is emerging on conifers, monitor for needlecast and blight diseases in the area. Diplodia tip blight on 2 and 3 needled pines and Rhizosphaera needlecast and Stigmina on blue Colorado spruce are our most common needlecast diseases in Ontario. Diplodia tip blight appears as brown, stunted needles at the tips of branches. Rhizosphaera appears as brown-purplish needles from the previous year’s growth, symptomatic needles begin to drop in late spring. Stigmina appears on green and chlorotic needles, but doesn’t always lead to needle drop. To confirm it is Rhizosphaera, look at the undersides of the needles. Those little white dots (stomata) will turn black and the black spots will protrude during sporulation. New, soft growth is especially susceptible to foliar diseases, but infection may also take place later in the season (we don’t know). Where there is a history of damage, treat with registered fungicides (copper oxychloride, Banner Maxx, Daconil) as buds start to open and protect new foliage. Apply fungicides prior to precipitation events (spore dispersal). Unfortunately, most of these blights and needlecasts can be found sporulating for much of the year.
Where leaf cupping and distortion was a problem last year, look for tiny, nymphs of the boxwood psyllid hiding and feeding from inside the emerging buds. The nymphs are yellowish-green at first but later secrete a white, waxy substance that can be seen on new foliage and on the nymphs themselves. Treat with insecticides to reduce populations of newly hatched nymphs when new growth appears. Carbaryl is toxic to honeybees so avoid carbaryl applications on plants that are blooming. Where boxwood leafminer was a problem last year, treat new growth with a systemic insecticide (dimethoate) to limit damage from new generation larvae. Treat with insecticides such as insecticidal soap, carbaryl (Sevin) or dimethoate
Balsam twig aphid stem mothers are/have hatched and the tiny, bluish grey aphids can be found on terminal buds as they break. Apply Diazinon, Malathion and Tristar on warm days (55 to 78 GDD Base 10oC OR before bud caps loosen off) to target these stem mothers and prevent the damaging generation that follows. Where foliage is emerging, eggs are hatching and this generation is much more difficult to control with pesticides.
Overwintering pine weevil adults are active and are mating on young twigs of evergreens when the Forsythia starts to bloom. Monitor for small black/brown snout beetles around the foliage. Where populations are high, an application of contact insecticide (e.g. carbaryl) on foliage may help reduce numbers. Common weevil pests include white pine weevil (1/4 inch long, two white spots on the back), northern pine weevil and pales weevil (1/2 inch long, brownish black). Pine root collar weevils also overwinter as adults (developmental stages are overlapping), but they feed and lay their eggs at the root collar.
Overwintering European pine sawfly eggs will be starting to hatch soon. Larvae feed in clusters on last year’s (and older) needles. Colonies can be removed and destroyed when larvae are still young. Larvae are greenish-yellow with dark head. They rear their abdomens up in unison when alarmed. They can often be found on the top half of the tree, on the NE side.
Cooley spruce gall adelgid and eastern spruce gall adelgid overwintering females appear as tiny (you’ll need a hand lens to see them), grey/blue fuzzy spots at the base of buds, on the undersides of twigs. They are just barely visible with the naked eye. Galls do not usually have much effect on plant growth but appear unsightly in summer when they turn brown. Where populations are high, the adelgids are susceptible to chemical control (or horticultural oil applications when dormant) when buds start to swell. Target pesticide applications to the undersides of shoot tips. Use wettable powder formulations on blue spruce to prevent foliar discolouration. Heavy populations of spruce gall adelgid are often a sign of some other underlying cause of stress or root problem in the tree.
Monitor for eggs of spruce spider mite on conifers with a history of mite damage. Spruce spider mite eggs appear as very tiny, round, reddish-brown spheres that adhere to the UNDERSIDES of twigs and foliage this time of year. You will require a hand lens to see them clearly. Monitor lower branches, this is where most of the feeding damage is done. These eggs are susceptible to dormant hort oil applications in the next few weeks, where temperatures permit and plant species are not sensitive.
Pine shoot beetle adults have emerged. The tiny beetles take flight after 2-3 days where temperatures reach 10-12oC (I know, it’s hard to believe we’ve had that). Adults lay eggs underneath the bark of stressed or dead pine trees and stumps. Those larvae will develop later in April and May. Remove brood material (i.e. trap (sentinel) logs, snags, dead/dying trees) before new progeny adults emerge (210 GDD, Base 10oC) to comply with the CFIA. All brood material must be burned, chipped (less than 2cm diameter) or buried (30 cm deep) to comply with CFIA standards.
THIS MESSAGE WILL BE UPDATED the week of May 17.