You have reached Jen Llewellyn for the seventh edition of the 2013 OMAF and MRA Nursery and Landscape Report, updated on Friday, May 31st.
Environment Canada is calling for warm, humid, unsettled weather this weekend, with temperature ranging from 25-29oC in many areas. They are calling for showers and possible thunderstorms today and Saturday. Sunday will be cooler with much less humidity.
All of this wind and high temperatures have taken their toll on tender new leaves of trees and shrubs this spring. That “ratty” appearance to leaves is called LEAF TATTERING and is pretty common in this weather. Leaf margins often dry up and turn brown to brown-black.
Apply fertilizer in the field and landscape where soils are moist and warm to facilitate root growth and maximize the uptake of fertilizer nutrients (usually when leaves have emerged and expanded). A soil test will show deficiencies that can be corrected through supplemental fertilizing. It has been shown that applications of nitrogen to cold, wet soils results in loss of nitrogen to the environment.
Plant Phenology indicators this week.
A) North of 401 (150-200 GDD Base 10oC): Aesculus hippocastanum (late bloom, Lonicera korolkowii (full bloom), Spiraea vanhouttei (full bloom), Cornus alternifolia (early bloom), Pinus mugo (candling), Acer saccharinum (dropping seed)
B) Niagara: Aesculus hippocastanum (late bloom, Lonicera korolkowii (late bloom), Spiraea vanhouttei (full-late bloom), Cornus alternifolia (early-mid bloom), Pinus mugo (candling), Acer saccharinum (dropping seed)
C) London area: if you would like to report plant phenology events, please contact me.
D) Leamington-Windsor: if you would like to report plant phenology events, please contact me.
If you are referring to the Monitoring tables in the 2009 edition of publication 383, Nursery and Landscape Plant Production and IPM, look at Table 4-4 on pg. 64.
PLEASE NOTE: The Following Pesticide Recommendations are meant for Exception Uses (e.g. agriculture) under the Cosmetic Pesticide Ban unless the active ingredient is listed under Class 11 pesticides in Ontario Regulation 63/09, effective April 22, 2009.
The 2013 Crop Protection Guide for Nursery and Landscape Plants (previously 383, now publication 840) can now be found at: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub840/p840order.htm
This contains the crop pest recommendations for nursery and landscape plants that was previously found in publication 383. Publication 840 is a .pdf file, accessible online and on cd.
Nursery-Landscape Insect Pest ID: Dave Cheung’s Common Pests of Nursery-Landscape database to help ID your problem pests. Check out http://www.dkbdigitaldesigns.com/clm
Injectable insecticides may be used to protect ash trees from new infestations of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis). Trees must be actively transpiring in order to maximize insecticide uptake into the cambium. Registered injectable insecticide products include: AceCap 97, Confidor 200 SL and Tree-Azin. Check out the Management Strategy for Emerald Ash Borer and Bronze Birch Borer at: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/insects/eab-bbb-manage.htm. Emerald ash borer adults start to emerge when the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) are blooming.
The regulated areas for Emerald Ash Borer can be found at:
The regulated areas for EAB outlines restrictions on the movement of all ash species (Fraxinus sp.) materials and all species of firewood from these regulated areas of Ontario and Quebec.
As of April 5, 2013, the Asian Long Horned Beetle is considered to be eradicated from Canada (Ontario). It was detected in the southern part of the City of Vaughan and the north east part of the City of Toronto. The Asian Long-horned Beetle was last detected inside the regulated area in Toronto in December, 2007. The Asian Long-horned Beetle Infested Place Order is no longer being enforced. This means that tree materials, including nursery stock, trees, logs, lumber, wood, and wood and bark chips from tree species that are susceptible to the Asian Long-horned Beetle, may once again be freely moved out of, or through, this area.
In PRODUCTION NURSERIES where black vine weevil larvae are a problem in container crops (e.g. perennials, evergreens), wait until soils reach at least a consistent 10-12oC and treat with beneficial nematodes, Heterohabditis bacteriophora (H.b.). This should result in a significant reduction in populations within two weeks. Since Heterohabditis nematodes require moist, warm soil, we find that they do not work well in the landscape/field unless ample, supplemental irrigation can be provided for the 10 days following application. In container production, Met 52 can also be used prevenatively, at the time of potting, to help control all stages of black vine weevil. In the LANDSCAPE and GARDEN, check for overwintered LARVAE of black vine weevil on Rhododendron, Taxus, Thuja, Euonymus etc. in the garden and treat with nematodes when soil temperatures warm up.
Take a look at the roots of poor looking turf and field grown ornamentals and look for populations of European chafer, May/June Beetle larvae and other white grub species in the soil. Preventative applications of Intercept (imidacloprid) are registered for white grubs (nursery production) and the application period is in June and July (during the adult flight period). Beneficial nematode applications are not recommended this time of year and are much more effective when applied to early instar larvae, mid-August to early-September.
DECIDUOUS WOODY AND HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS:
Dutch Trig is registered for Dutch Elm Disease on Ulmus americana species in Canada. This is a new registration (fall, 2009) that contains a biological organism that induces an immune response to help the tree fight off DED infections. Arbotect-20-S (thiabendazole) is the registered injectable fungicide treatment. Injections of these fungicides should be made on sunny days during leaf emergence to maximize uptake.
Where Malus and Pyrus and Sorbus (mountain ash) are blooming and beginning to leaf out and it is WARM and WET, applications of bactericidal products (Copper, Kasumin (new), BlossomProtect (bio)) can help reduce the incidence of Fire blight infections during WARM, WET weather this spring. The weather this week is perfect for the spread and infection of Fireblight. Fireblight infection causes dead shoots on Malus and Pyrus, sometimes killing young nursery stock.
We saw the very beginning of powdery mildew starting on Physocarpus in the landscape last week. Monitor for white, powdery residule on the tops and bottoms of leaves. This is a very wooley type of powdery mildew and is very aggressive on this host (causes leaf and stem dieback). Protect new foliage with fungicide applications (e.g. Switch, Milstop, Regalia (bio)) where disease pressure is moderate to high. Prune out and destroy light infestations.
Aphids are quite numerous on herbaceous and woody ornamentals this spring! Green peach aphid is one of the most common species and melon aphid and foxglove aphid are also quite common. This year we are seeing large colonies of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) on deciduous flowering shrubs and Euonymus. Aphids are sucking insects that cause stunting, malformation and coat plants in honeydew. They also attract ants. Various insecticides are registered to manage aphids in outdoor production nurseries including Endeavor, Tristar and Trounce. In greenhouses insecticides include Endeavor, Intercept and Enstar EW. Where populations aren’t immediately economically damaging, biological control (e.g. Aphidius, Aphidoletes) may provide excellent management when introduced on a regular basis. Biocontrol suppliers include Koppert, Plant Products and Canadian Hydrogardens.
Woolly beech aphid will be found feeding on European beech (Fagus sylvatica), on the undersides of leaves. The aphids overwinter as eggs, hatch at bud bread and give birth to live young as leaves have expanded. They secrete a white, waxy substance that covers their body and makes it appear “woolly”. Insecticidal soap or a strong stream of water can help reduce numbers of woolly aphids before they coat the undersides of the leaves. Infestation does not usually reduce host vigour, but honeydew production attracts other insects (ants, bees, wasps) and sooty mould.
Adults of the imported willow leaf beetle (Plagioderaversicolora) are found on Salix (Willow) this time of year. The beetles were feeding on the leaves, chewing conspicuous holes and notches into them. They are easily recognizable by their shiny, metallic black to bluish-green color. Adults overwinter in cracks within the bark on the host tree and start feeding in the spring. They will soon be laying yellow eggs on the underside of leaves, which will hatch 2 weeks after that. The larvae will feed on the interveinal tissue on the underside of the leaves and damage can be significant. The adults can be found feeding in field production and in the landscape in the coming weeks. Low toxicity insecticides registered for this pest include Success 480 SC. Other insecticides include Malathion, Orthene and Sevin. Avoid Sevin application when Salix is in bloom.
Birch leafminer adults (small, black sawflies) may still be layomg eggs on birch leaves. Systemic insecticides are registered to manage this pest in nursery production. Injectable insecticides (AceCap 97, TreeAzin) are registered for this pest in the landscape.
Eastern tent caterpillars are feeding and making webby tents in branch crotches. The larvae can cause severe defoliation in May, where populations are high. Young larvae hide in webby tents during the day, remove and destroy tents during daylight hours in the first week or two after their appearance and destroy. Where larvae are a little larger and start to feed during daylight hours, try an application of the biological insecticide B.t (Dipel, Foray) on the foliage during the evening hours. Larvae will turn black and die approximately 3-5 days after eating the B.t. residue on the foliage.
Gypsy moth larvae (2nd and 3rd instar) can be found on various hosts. Some early control can be achieved using spinosad (Success) insecticide in the first 2 weeks after egg hatch. B.t. will work better later once they are settled in their feeding site (most areas now). Some keen homeowners can install a burlap skirt at the base of the tree to create a shady, protected area for larvae to hide during the day (this behaviour usually peaks near the end of May). Homeowners will need to inspect burlap skirts and underlying bark crevices daily (1-3 pm is best) and remove/destroy larvae. Sticky bands around trunks during the June/July flight period will help prevent females from laying eggs above sticky bands and will attract males to the sticky surface.
Viburnum leaf beetle larvae are feeding on the underside of Viburnum leaves. Look for tiny yellow larvae with black markings. Larvae feed on the interveinal tissue from the undersides of the leaves, keep that in mind if you are doing insecticidal applications (Success, Actara, horticultural oil).
Oystershell scale crawlers are starting to hatch. Look for very tiny (2-3 mm), whitish-grey, oyster-shell shaped hard scale insects stuck on twigs and branches of deciduous trees and shrubs such as ash, birch, bittersweet, hackberry, redbud, beech and dogwood. Crawlers (light tan) are sensitive to insecticidal soap, horticultural oil, malathion and other insecticides (Viburnum opulus blooming, Aesculus hippocastanum late bloom). Two-three applications of insecticides may be necessary since crawlers hatch over 1-3 week period.
Where new foliage is emerging on conifers, monitor for needlecast and blight diseases in the area. Diplodia tip blight on 2 and 3 needled pines and Rhizosphaera needlecast and Stigmina on blue Colorado spruce are our most common needlecast diseases in Ontario. Diplodia tip blight appears as brown, stunted needles at the tips of branches. Rhizosphaera appears as brown-purplish needles from the previous year’s growth, symptomatic needles begin to drop in late spring. Stigmina appears on green and chlorotic needles, but doesn’t always lead to needle drop. To confirm it is Rhizosphaera, look at the undersides of the needles. Those little white dots (stomata) will turn black and the black spots will protrude during sporulation. New, soft growth is especially susceptible to foliar diseases, but infection may also take place later in the season (we don’t know). Where there is a history of damage, treat with registered fungicides (copper oxychloride, Banner Maxx, Daconil) as buds start to open and protect new foliage. Apply fungicides prior to precipitation events (spore dispersal). Unfortunately, most of these blights and needlecasts can be found sporulating for much of the year.
The first generation of Euonymus scale crawlers will be hatching in the field and landscape in the next week. Euonymus scale look like tiny white flecks (males) and tiny brown sea shells (females) along twigs and the undersides of leaves. Look for bright, orange crawlers around populations of adults and on the undersides of leaves and twigs. Where insecticide applications are warranted, multiple applications may be required to get good knockdown since crawler emergence is staggered over a few weeks. Try insecticidal soap and the summer rate of horticultural oil.
Overwintering pine weevil adults are active and are mating on young twigs of evergreens at this time. Monitor for small black/brown snout beetles around the foliage. Where populations are high, an application of contact insecticide (e.g. carbaryl) on foliage may help reduce numbers. Common weevil pests include white pine weevil (1/4 inch long, two white spots on the back), northern pine weevil and pales weevil (1/2 inch long, brownish black). Pine root collar weevils also overwinter as adults (developmental stages are overlapping), but they feed and lay their eggs at the root collar.
Overwintering European pine sawfly eggs have hatched. Larvae feed in clusters on last year’s (and older) needles and our nursery scout is finding them in container production. Colonies can be removed and destroyed when larvae are still young. Larvae are greenish-yellow with dark head. They rear their abdomens up in unison when alarmed. They can often be found on the top half of the tree, on the NE side. There are several insecticides registered for this pest. A low toxic pesticide choice is Success or Dragnet. Closely examine twigs of Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus nigra.
Taxus or Fletcher Scale nymphs are feeding on foliage of Thuja and Taxus and starting to produce shiny, clear, sticky honeydew. Applications of insecticides may give some suppression of this pest but nymphs are quite large now and were more susceptible in mid-to-late summer of last year. These nymphs will be feeding and producing copious amounts of honeydew in the next few weeks.
Taxus mealybug nymphs will be showing up. Adult mealybugs are bright white (3-5 mm), waxy looking flat insects that barely move. They can be found on twigs of older Taxus in field production in hedges. They produce honeydew therefore, black sooty mould is apparent on infested plants. Where populations are high, nymphs are sensitive to applications of insecticidal soap, horticultural oil, Trounce, Sevin and many others.
Cedar leaf miner larvae have resumed feeding from the inside of leaf scales. Tear along the margin of green and brown tissue and check for the presence of tiny, yellow/green larvae with dark heads (to confirm CLM is the cause of the browning foliage). We have seen quite a bit of CLM in field grown Thuja on sandy soils this spring. They will be pupating and emerging as adults in the next few weeks. Adulticides (malathion) are registered for the moth life stage in nursery production.
Pine false webworm larvae will be found on white pine When eggs hatch, larvae snip off foliage and make webby nests near the trunk. The larvae clip off more needles and pull them into the webby nest where they feed on them. The larvae feed mainly on older growth and will only eat the current year’s growth when all else has been consumed. The new nests can be dislodged with a strong stream of water.
Cooley spruce gall adelgid and eastern spruce gall adelgid will be forming galls on new twigs of spruce at this time. Galls do not usually have much effect on plant growth but appear unsightly in summer when they turn brown. Where populations are high, the adelgids are susceptible to chemical control (or horticultural oil applications when dormant) when buds start to swell. Target pesticide applications to the undersides of shoot tips. Use wettable powder formulations on blue spruce to prevent foliar discolouration. Heavy populations of spruce gall adelgid are often a sign of some other underlying cause of stress or root problem in the tree.
Monitor for nymphs and adults of spruce spider mite on conifers with a history of mite damage. Spruce spider mite nymphs and adults are brown with black backs and found on new foliage this time of year. Miticides registered for SSM include Floramite and Kanemite. Miticides may be required where pest pressure is moderate to heavy.
Pine shoot beetle adults have emerged. The tiny beetles take flight after 2-3 days where temperatures reach 10-12oC (I know, it’s hard to believe we’ve had that). Adults lay eggs underneath the bark of stressed or dead pine trees and stumps. Those larvae will develop later in April and May. Remove brood material (i.e. trap (sentinel) logs, snags, dead/dying trees) before new progeny adults emerge (210 GDD, Base 10oC) to comply with the CFIA. All brood material must be burned, chipped (less than 2cm diameter) or buried (30 cm deep) to comply with CFIA standards.
THIS MESSAGE WILL BE UPDATED the week of June 7.